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?? 1460 ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????. ?? 1687 ????????? ???
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?? 1896 ???????????? ? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ???
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??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???? (?????, ??????? ??? ???????) ? ????????? ????????: ? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????, ? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????, ??? ???? ?????? ???, ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????, ????
??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????. ??? ? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????, ? ?? ??????, ??? ??????????? ??? ???????, ???? ??? ??????? ???????, ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? (?????, ????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????). ??? ??? ???????, ? ??????, ???????? ??? ???, ??? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ????, ??????? ?????.
??????, ????, ? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???, ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???, ?????????? ???????, ???????? ??? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ???????? ???????.

??? ????? ????, ? ?????? ???????, ? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ???? ??????????, ?? ???? ??? ????????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ??????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???, ?????, ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??????, ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????.

???? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????, ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????. ???? ??????????????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????. ???? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???? ???. ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???, ??? ???
??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????, ???? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ???, ??? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ???????. ??? ??' ???? ?? ?????, ?? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ????? ??????-?????????. ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? 2.188 ???, ? ????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??????, ?? ????? ???????, ?? ????? ??? ??????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????.

???????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? 17 ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ????????. ????? ?? 700? ?????????? ?? ????????, ?? ??????, ? ?????? ??? ? ????, ??? ?????? 700-2000? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????. ???? ???????? ????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ????????. ???????? 16 ???? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ???????- ?????? ??????????, ???? ? ????????? ??? ? ?????.

? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? - ????????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????. ????, ?? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????. ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????.

??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ? ????? ??? ???????. ?? ???????? ??????? 800? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? 1912, ???? ? ??????? ?????? ????????. ??? ???? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? 16,5 ??? ??? ?? ?????????. ?? 13 ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????. ?????, ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????????, ?? ???????? 2.100? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??????, ??? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????.

? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? - ?????????? ???????????????? ?? 1896 ??? ????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????. ??????? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????. ????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??? ? ???? "??????".

?? ???????? 5 ???. ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????. ???????? ?? 961??, ??? ? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? 1821 ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ???. ??????????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???????? 10??? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????. ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? 14? ??., ??? ? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????. ?????, 14 ???. ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ???? "??????????" ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????.

? ??????? ????? ?????? - ????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????. ?????? ? ???????, ?? ???????????, ? ??????????, ? ??????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???.


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To ???????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????????, ????? ? ???? ???? ??? ?. ????????, ? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? 940 ?. ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ? ????. ?????? ?????????, ???????? "?????????" ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????. ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????, ????? ???? ???????????, ????????????? ?? ??? ????????. ? ?????? ???? ???? ???????????? ??? 1653, ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?.?.?. ??? ???? ??? ?. ???????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???, ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????. ? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? : ???? ?????? ??? ?????? - ??????, ????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????. ???? ??? 26 ???. ???????? ??? ???? ????. ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????????, ?????? ? ?????????? - ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?? 15' ?? ?????????? ??? ????.
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?? "?????? ??????", ? ??? ??' ???? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????, ???? ???? ?????????.
? ??????? ??????? "??????" ??? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ??????'????? ??????? ?? 1943 ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????????. ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???. ????????.
???????? ? ?. ???? ??? ?. ????????, ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ?.?. ??????? ????? ?????????,??? ??? ?????? ???????, ?????????, ????????????, ??? ????? .
4,5 ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????.
????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????????? ??? 1821.
?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ???.??? ? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????,????????? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ?? 1943, ???? ????????????.
?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? , ?? ????? ??? ? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????.??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????.??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??? 1600 ?????? ??? ????? ????????????.
???? ????? 25 ??????? ????????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????.

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